Teledyne LABS’ chromatography instruments and Gas Chromatography (GC) Sample Preparation​ & Introduction systems deliver time-proven, innovative solutions to your chromatography needs.

For GC Sample Preparation and Introduction, our Purge and Trap Concentrators and Autosamplers yield consistent accurate, results in testing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in drinking water, wastewater, and soil samples to satisfy all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method guidelines.

Flash and Preparative Liquid Chromatography instruments and accessories are for the purification of organic compounds in the normal-phase and reversed-phase separation process, and for protein purification and the purification of peptides and other biopolymers.​

Gas Chromatography (GC) and Liquid Chromatography (LC) are an essential to an everyday laboratory. Chromatography is used to ensure water, wastewater and soil samples comply to local and government regulations. Where others will use chromatography to assist in research, development purification and manufacturing. Chromatography can be found in many markets including but not exclusive to: Environmental, Pharmaceutical, Food and Flavor, and industrial.

​Frequently Asked Questions​

What is chromatography and how is it used? What are the 3 types of chromatography?

Chromatography was invented by botanist M​ikhail Tsvet in 1900 to separate plant pigments. As these are colored compounds, Tsvet coined the word “chromatography” from “chroma,” meaning “color,” and “graphy,” meaning “to write.” Just as today, his method involved a solid phase (stationary phase) and a liquid phase (mobile phase). While his method worked using capillary action, today there are a number of chromatographic methods, including reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and others.

Chromatography is a chemical analysis or purification technique used to separate complex mixtures (in either a solid or liquid sample matrix) into their different components There are a number of different chromatography separation techniques, but they all share the same basic principles entailing a solvent called the mobile phase for its ability to move through a system on a fixed stationary phase. The mobile phase may be either a liquid, supercritical fluid (usually carbon dioxide) or inert gas, while the stationary phase is a solid phase, or a liquid phase coated on a solid phase. The mobile phase moves over a stationary phase (commonly silica gel) resulting in a separation of the compounds into its different components, based on the affinity of each component’s molecules for the mobile and stationary phases. The varied mass of the molecules and their varying propensity to adhere to the chromatography matrix (stationary phase) causes the compounds to migrate up the paper in paper chromatography, or a column in automated forms of chromatography, at different speeds.

Chemists choose the stationary phase and mobile phase for separation chromatography technique based on the sample being analyzed. Various solvents (polar solvent or non-polar solvent) are used for the mobile phase. The stationary phase in thin layer chromatography (TLC) may be chromatography filter paper or, most often, silica gel applied to a glass plate. The mobile phase is pulled by capillary action up the paper or glass slide.

Beyond TLC, today’s labs use automated systems for chromatography that are far more accurate and allow for dividing the individual components of a sample into separate vials using a UV detector, mass spectrometer or other method, and a fraction collector.

In column chromatography, the chemist applies a sample on top of a glass column or stainless steel column packed with silica gel or other material (the stationary phase). Teledyne ISCO’s disposable RediSep® columns for flash chromatography are precision-packed for high resolution and reproducibility. They come in a variety of sizes. 

In flash chromatography, the mobile phase is pushed through the stationary phase using a solvent pump. Flash is a popular technique for purifying pharmaceutical intermediates, as well as final organic products. It is also widely used in natural products research.

Further advancements in technique include gas chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). They differ from flash chromatography in the solvents used, the particle size of the stationary phase, and the pressure used. HPLC and SFC send the mobile phase through the stationary phase under far greater pressure than in flash chromatography. This, and the use of smaller particles for the stationary phase in the column, gives HPLC and SFC superior resolution to distinguish between compounds and elute purer results.

In supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)​, the common mobile phase is supercritical carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is normally a gas (people and animals exhale it) and when it is under high pressure at a certain temperature, the CO2 becomes supercritical, where a difference between the gaseous and liquid states can no longer be observed.  This offers the ability to work at higher flow rates, decreasing purification time and resulting in a fraction where a majority of the mobile phase disappears, as the CO2 evaporates when it returns to atmospheric pressure, greatly reducing the time of evaporation.  

HPLC is divided into analytical chromatography and preparativ​e chromatography. Flash and prep HPLC are used to purify large sample quantities; in analytical HPLC, the goal is to achieve the highest resolution possible to observe each unique compound in the sample.

When should you use chromatography?

Chromatography is used for chemical analysis or purification by separating different components of a compound, or for use in the production of pharmaceuticals, other products and compounds. TLC, Flash, SFC and HPLC are used for different purposes, and each has its benefits and ideal use cases.​

What is Purge and Trap and ho​​​​w is it used?​

Purge and Trap is a sample preparation/introduction technique for gas chromatography​ mass spectrometry (GCMS). Water/soil samples cannot be injected directly into the GCMS for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) so a sample preparation/introduction technique such as Purge and Trap must be used.

Purge and Trap utilizes an inert gas (He/N2) to purge the VOCs from the water/soil samples. The VOCs are carried to an adsorbent trap where they are concentrated and retained. The adsorbent trap is then heated (desorbed) allowing the VOCs to be released and transferred to the GCMS for separation and detection. 

What are the key methods for P​urge and Trap?

Many drinking water, wastewater and soil methods mandate the use of Purge and Trap for sample preparation and introduction to the GC/GCMS. Drinking water methods consist of USEPA 524 Series and 624, while the wastewater and soil methods are outline in USEPA 8260

What are co​mmon Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)?

​Disinfection byproducts from Chlorine treatment, Gasoline (made up of many volatile compounds), Ethanol (beer!!), Acetone (nail polish remover), Mineral spirits (paint thinner), Hexane (glues)​